Modulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretion by cytokines, inducers and inhibitors in human glioblastoma T-98G cells

Human T-98G cells were grown in DME supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics in 24-well tissue culture plates. At near confluence, cells were washed with phosphate-buffered saline and incubated in serum-free media with: phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) at 10, 25, 50 and 100 ng/ml; tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-αand interleukin (IL)-1βat 0.1, 1, 10 and 25 ng/ml; lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 10, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml; epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and doxycycline (Dox) at 10, 25, 50 and 100 µM without and with PMA; a nutrient mixture (NM) containing lysine, proline, ascorbic acid and green tea extract without and with PMA at 10, 50, 100, 500 and 1,000 µg/ml;
actinomycin D and cyclohexamide at 2 and 4 µM; retinoic acid and dexamethasone at 50 µM. After 24 h the media were removed and analyzed for MMP-2 and MMP-9 by zymography and densitometry. Glioblastoma T-98G cells expressed only one band corresponding to MMP-2. PMA treatment showed increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretions up to 25 ng/ ml and decreased levels of secretions at 50 and 100 ng/ml, with no significant overall effect. TNF-αinduced an up and down effect on MMP-2 and a slight induction of MMP-9.  IL-1βdemonstrated a slight dose-dependent increase in T-98G secretion of MMP-2, but no induction of MMP-9. LPS showed dose-dependent decreased inactive MMP-2 secretion, increased active MMP-2 secretion and no effect on MMP-9.

EGCG, Dox and NM, without and with PMA, downregulated the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in a dose-dependent manner. Actinomycin D, cyclohexamide, retinoic acid and dexamethasone also had inhibitory effects on MMP-2. Our results showed that cytokines, mitogens and inhibitors modulated T-98G cell MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression, suggesting the clinical use of MMP inhibitors, particularly such potent and non-toxic ones as the nutrient mixture and its component EGCG in the management of glioblastoma cancers.

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